Clown - Readings in Theatre Practice (2013) is a mixture of clown history, philosophy, and practice, aiming to present as many different perspectives on clown in their historical and social contexts, covering the origins of the auguste/clown duo, shakespearean clowns, female clowns, contemporary clown training, gags books, analyses of clowns past and present, etc.
“A wide scope of material is covered, including theoretical analyses, press coverage, interviews, autobiographies, and live and recorded clown performances. This material is confidently summarised alongside key passages from the sources, some of which are translated from French, Spanish, and Italian, and not previously accessible to Anglophone readers.”
“The monograph also includes useful insights on clowning from sources that might not otherwise have been considered, such as the practice of Michael Chekhov, television comedy, and autobiographical accounts by stand-up comedians. This makes the book most useful for contextualising more specific studies of clown performance or for introducing newcomers to the disparate literature on this disparate subject through carefully selected excerpts.”
“The variety of practices addressed within this book means that for readers with prior knowledge of clown practice, Clown is likely to cover familiar ground, offering reinforcement of knowledge, but adding historical context and suggesting opposing views.”
“The book is a much-needed contribution to the field, discussing historical and contemporary clowning in one volume, and offering comparative analysis linking the strands of performance that have been called clown with other comic forms.”
“Davison is successful in the difficult task of transcribing and describing comic examples. His accounts of clown numbers retain the possibility of making the reader laugh, allowing the examples to illustrate theoretical points. Davison’s own writing is often amusing as well”
“Placing the embodied knowledge of the practitioner above the professional spectator or theorist of humour, Davison’s approach encourages the reader to consider how clown theory, history, and practice can be usefully applied to creating new performances”
From Lucy Amsden (2014) “Clown by Jon Davison” in Contemporary Theatre Review 24: 2, pp 279-80
"Jon Davison’s Clown provides a valuable introduction to studying clowns as historical subjects and clown as a contemporary performance practice."
"Throughout the book, Davison challenges a notion that clown is primarily a performance “to provide an experience of authenticity” (7), critiquing popular notions that clown is a uniquely personal form of performance because it reveals an “authentic” or “true” performance through spontaneous action. Much of the book wrestles between clown’s formalized aspects and this feeling of the authentic."
"Davison’s breadth of research demonstrates the temporal motivations of clowns, but also serves as a great starting point for those wishing to know more about clowns of the past."
"The thorough history serves to address some of the frequent romanticizing of clowns as ahistorical figures."
"Davison’s book is marked by an intense investment in his subject matter."
"The book’s wealth of information and broad scope encourages further detailed looks at a variety of clown histories and practices. Often taking views contrary to other clown or theatre practitioners and scholars like Lecoq and Andrew McConnell Stott, Davison hopes to ruffle feathers. This desire seems entirely appropriate and germane for his conception of clown: 'in a way that’s what clowns are: they go against the grain'”
Reviewed by Dave Peterson University of Pittsburgh
Copyright © 2014 Johns Hopkins University Press
“Davison is not afraid to challenge assumptions and counter prejudices. The result is a gratifyingly historicized and situated account of a staggering range of examples of clowning, grounded in personal artistic experience, which is invaluable for students and scholars alike.
Clown is impressively ambitious in scope, ranging from Shakespearean fools to hospital clowns, from Buster Keaton to the Koshari of New Mexico”
Barnaby King, Edge Hill University, review in Theatre Research International. https://www.mcgill.ca/english/files/english/tri_affectrev.pdf
Opening paragraphs of Clown Readings in Theatre Practice
The comedian, Bill Hicks, told this story in his show, Sane Man:
I was in Nashville, Tennessee last week and after the show I went to a waffle house, right, and I’m sitting there eating and reading a book, I don’t know anybody and I’m eating and I’m reading a book, and this waitress comes over to me and ‘tut tut tut tut tut! What you reading for?’ I said, ‘Wow, I’ve never been asked that!’ Not, “what am I reading?”, but “what am I reading for?” well, goddammit, you stumped me!’ [...] then this trucker in the next booth gets up, stands over me and goes, ‘Well, looks like we got ourselves a reader!’ (Hicks 1989)
This book, another kind of reader, has all the makings for being turned into a joke. A book about clown, clowns and clowning, and a serious one at that. Olly Double, the stand-up comedian and academic, begins his second book, Getting the Joke (2005), with a section entitled ‘I’ve Got a Degree in Beckhamology’ where he tells of the media reaction to his obtaining a full-time academic post at the University of Kent:
The idea of teaching stand-up comedy at university had all the hallmarks of a silly-season classic, and the press went for the hey-you’ll-never-believe-what-these-crazy-academics-are-up-to-now angle. The Guardian’s piece started:
I say. I say. Did you hear that they’ve hired a clown at Kent University? No, really. He’s going to be teaching the students stand-up comedy. No. Seriously, laze ‘n’ gennermen, he’s got a Ph.D. in it. Actually, Dr Oliver Double is not a clown, but he is a practising stand-up comedian. And he will be teaching third-year drama students who want it — and ooh, we all want it, don’t we, missis! — the art of rambling into a pub microphone and making people choke on their pints with mirth. (Double 2005: 1-2)
Of course, the idea of being serious about something which isn’t serious, like comedy, or clowning, is funny. In fact, being serious about anything, in the clown’s world, is funny. But the idea that we don’t, or can’t, have ideas about clowns is just plain false. When I was researching this book, I wrote some short reviews of clown performances, books, films and other phenomena, as I wanted to find a vocabulary with which to talk about clown on its own terms and not by the criteria of other genres. One clown took offence, not because I had reviewed him negatively (I hadn’t), but because he believed that none of us had the knowledge or the licence to be able to criticise others in the profession. Clowns today may on the whole be mutually supportive, as is to be expected given our present low status, both culturally and economically (it was not always thus), but ideas and beliefs - positive and negative, insightful and banal - about clowns are all around us. It might be useful to draw some of them together so that we know what they are and can think about them.
Introduction: Clown Ideas
We would expect to begin with a clear definition of the field of enquiry. But defining what a clown is is not a straightforward matter. Just about everyone has ideas, preconceptions or opinions about clowns. Clowns themselves certainly do. There is a surprising variety of ideas around about clowns, especially when you start looking beyond your own time and place.
Some define clown in terms of the dynamics of both laughter: ‘A clown who doesn’t provoke laughter is a shameful mime’ (Gaulier 2007a: 289) and failure: ‘this big idiot who regrets not being funny’ (Gaulier 2007a: 301). Although others disagree: ‘It's okay not to be funny. Clowns do not have to make people laugh‘ (Simon 2009: 31), whilst others believe clowns to be sad or to exhibit ‘shabby melancholy‘ (Stott 2009: XVI).
Some define clown in relation to expected behavior or rules: clowns ‘contradict their context‘ (McManus 2003). 'The key feature uniting all clowns, therefore, is their ability, skill or stupidity, to break the rules' (McManus 2003: 12).
An etymological definition would take us back to the origins of the word clown in 16th England, referring to those who do not behave like gentlemen, but in ‘clownish or uncivil fashions‘ (French Academy, 1586).
Some identify the clown with the red nose, which they consider to be ‘a tiny neutral mask for the clown’ (Wright 2002: 80), which is also ‘a quest for liberation from the “social masks” we all wear‘ (Murray 2003: 79, on Jacques Lecoq).
Some consider that clowning is a route to spirituality and self-knowledge, via ‘a great joy, a great confidence, a great acceptance of ourselves, and thus of others too‘ (Cenoz 2011); ‘the main similarity between clown and Zen is that if you are you are thinking, then you are not where you want to be‘ (Cohen 2005); ‘Clowning is about the freedom that comes from a state of total, unconditional acceptance of our most authentic selves‘ (Henderson 2008).
Some see clowning as a means to relieve suffering, ranging in status from ‘respected complementary care providers [and] members of the health care team‘ (Koller and Gryski 2008), to the more humble friend: ‘I would never agree laughter is the best medicine, I’ve never said it. Friendship is clearly the best medicine‘ (Adams 2007).
Some believe clowns are responsible for bringing rain to the crops: ‘they also fast, mortify themselves, and pray to Those Above that every kind of fruit may ripen in its time, even the fruit in woman’s womb‘ (Bandolier 1890: 34). Some ascribe such powers to their taboo-breaking: ‘This “wisdom” magically acquired shows well that this is a question of the breaking of a taboo’ (Makarius 1974: 63).
Some think that clowns are a socially useful way to control traffic, since they ’can achieve what traffic police cannot achieve using warning and sanctions [...] by employing artistic and peaceful actions’ (Toothaker 2011), but others believe that to be a clown is to sink below human dignity: ’I'm going to earn something, even if it’s as a clown’ (Partido del Trabajo de México 2009).
At times, some have believed clowns could stop wars: ’The laughter of Bim and Bom almost stopped the Russian Revolution’ (Schechter 1998: 33). Alternatively, they might find themselves on the side of governments: ’Nikulin replied: “Who will be the subject of our parody? The government is marvellous”’ (Schechter 1998: 15-16). Some think that clowns can teach politicians: ’The World Parliament of Clowns will give scientists, politicians, managers and entrepreneurs, artists and religious leaders [...] immunity to say all their thoughts and ideas and to give all their wisdom to the world without the fear of blame and humiliation. One of the rights of clowns is to fail’ (Moshaeva 2006). Others see politicians as clowns: ‘In order for the balance to be harmonious, the President must be a whiteface clown and the Prime Minister an auguste, in their nature as much as in their function’ (Fallois in Rémy 1945: XIX).
Some see clowns in the street: ’skills that are necessary for clowning, such as [...] street theatre’ (Haifa 2006) whilst others do not: ’Dreams of grandeur save the idiot. His ambition isn’t to play in the street (not a very comfortable place) but at the Paris Opera’ (Gaulier 2007a: 291).
The list is much longer. Clowns have been seen as revolutionary, reactionary, avant-garde, universal, marginal, irrelevant, fundamental, dangerous, harmless, immoral, exemplary, skilled, chaotic, wealthy, poor, innocent, cruel, joyous, melancholic, or as fulfilling any number of social, artistic, cultural or political functions as can be imagined.
Today for some, the clown is a figure that has survived from the past, pre-technological, pre-modern, pre-literate even. For others, clown has undergone a renewal and branched out into new and highly contemporary fields: the post-Stanislavskian training of performers; therapy and a means to spiritual self-discovery; or a tool to change politics and decision-making in a world racing towards disaster.
All of these views could be shown to be at least partly true, at least at a particular moment in a particular place. The opposites could also be shown to be true, perhaps in other places and at other times. The point is that clowns, though they may be ubiquitous, are just as varied as any other phenomenon. They have a history, indeed many histories. They occur in different cultural contexts. There are often very precise reasons for why they are the way they are. We can usually trace particular characteristics to particular dates, or specific people and places. By looking at a wide range of material on clowns, we can see just how historically and culturally determined they are. If we can see what is specific to times, places and individuals, perhaps we can also see more clearly what clowns have in common, and if there is anything which always holds true for clowns.
Containing such an array of perspectives, this book is also bound, at some point or another, to go against the grain of what you think you know about clowns. Whatever one’s grain is, it will probably go against it. My own included. And in a way that’s what clowns are, they go against the grain. Whenever I see two people in agreement, my instinct is to disagree with them. Maybe that’s what led me to be a clown. In any case, it’s a useful research tool. A kind of naive scepticism, no malice intended. When two people agree on what clowns are, my ears prick up even more, ready to provide the contrary view if called upon. Or even if not.
So hopefully you will find something in this book that will make you think you might be wrong about clown. Which would be no bad thing, since clowns inevitably end up being wrong. I say to clown students that 93% of our lives and actions are failures and only 7% of it turns out right. That isn’t because I or anyone else has done such a scientific experiment; I took to the idea some years ago after reading that 93% of communication is apparently non-verbal. I liked the idea, though for the life of me I couldn’t see how you could measure such a thing. So given that the scientist in question was, in my opinion, making it up, I thought I might as well do the same. It feels about right to me, as a clown. When I say 93% of our lives, I mean all human beings, not just clowns. One thing one might say about clowns, though, is that they could be happy with such a statistic. Perhaps that is what marks you out as a clown from the rest. This admission of failure is the bedrock upon which most clown training of the last half century has been founded (Gaulier, Cenoz, Clay, etc.). The World Parliament of Clowns promotes the use of failure as a form of intelligence, hoping to influence world policy-makers (Antoschka).
I trust, then, that we will all be happy to give up some of our assumptions about clown throughout the course of this book, and that it will fail to live up to our own prejudices and expectations.
© Jon Davison 2013 reproduced with permission of Palgrave Macmillan
And here is the full contents list:
Introduction: Clown Ideas
Part I: What Do Clowns Do?
Chapter 1: Grock’s Entrée
Chapter 2: Clown History
... -The state of clown history
-William Wallett: Shakespearean clown
-Richard Tarlton and the Elizabethan clown: a new social and stage type
-Will Kemp: Shakespeare's clown and the stage jig
-Ben Jonson: the clown performance mode
-Robert Armin: Shakespeare's fool
Chapter 3: Clown and Pierrot
-Speaking and silent clowns
-Revolution, Napoleon and Jean-Gaspard Deburau: the French Pierrot
-Pierrot, Pedrolino and the migration of commedia dell'arte
-Arlecchino, Arlequin and Harlequin
-Harlequin and Clown: the Harlequinade
-Joey Grimaldi: clown legend
-Joey Grimaldi: the legacy
-Pierrot and Melodrama
-Pierrot after Deburau: a modernist hero
-Modernism and clown theory
-Cross-channel clowns and the rise of Parisian circus
-The Hanlons: the triumph of acrobatic pantomime
Chapter 4: Birth of the Auguste
-The auguste clowns of the 1880s: myths, anecdotes and some facts
-The French Third Republic: new clowns for a new age
-Footit and Chocolat: the clown-auguste relationship
-Clown types: duos, trios and soloists
-Little Walter, Antonet and Grock: the clown duo in flux
-Grock: the auguste as soloist in the theatre
-Grock: clown evolution
-The music-hall eccentric
-From circus to theatre, and back
Chapter 5: Clown Drama
-The Fratellini: superstar trio of the post-Great War era
-Tristan Rémy and the clown entrée
-The evolution of the North American clown: big tops and baseball
-The tramp clown: from Civil War to Great Depression
-Costume legends: Harrigan, Chaplin and the Fratellini
-Tramps, walkarounds and come-ins
-The lineage of the English pantomime: from the Hanlons via Karno and Sennett to Chaplin
-Laurel and Hardy: comedy as a ritual
Chapter 6: Death and Rebirth of the Clown
-Charlie Rivel: post-holocaust clown
-Clowns and tradition in the late 20th century
-Fellini and the death of the clown
-The splits in clowning: tradition versus contemporary, infantilisation versus phobia
-Slava Polunin: perestroika clown
-Grock and Polunin: philosopher clowns
-Cirque du Soleil: globalised clowns
-Surviving tradition: Andrei Jigalov, Fumagalli, Jean-Baptiste Thiérrée
Chapter 7: Clown Women
-Women’s clown history: the New Woman
-Lulu the clownesse and the Belle Époque
-Annie Fratellini, women’s liberation and clown gender roles
-Women clowns today: femininity, drag and beyond gender
Part II: How Do Clowns Clown?
Chapter 8: Clown Theory, Technique and Technology
-Theories of comedy: Oliver Double
-Practitioners and Theorists: Ken Dodd, Sigmund Freud et al
-Professional advice: Bob Monkhouse and Max Miller
-Alan Clay: street knowledge
-Lupino Lane: technical knowledge
-The technology and mechanics of clowning
-Trick props: the Fratellini, the Rastelli and Pompoff and Thedy
-Sebastià Gasch and Jordi Jané: a political history of props and jokes
-Grock and Tortell Poltrona: the theory, technique and technology of the chair
-Food comedy: carrots, bananas and fish
-Slosh: technology and technique in pantomime
-Cultural anthropology and the meaning of clowning
-Ritual clowns: mud, urine, faeces and menstrual blood
-Paul Bouissac and circus anthropology: the profanation of the sacred
-Taboo-breaking in European clowning: babies, pigs and cannibalism
-Bouissac and gag theory
-Gag structure, categorisation and ownership: Dominique Denis’s 1000 gags
-Impossible props: Grock, Harpo Marx and Lucille Ball
-Lazzi: stage crudities and violence
Chapter 9: Clown Authors
-Autobiographies and trade secrets: Coco and Buffo
-Harpo Marx in the USSR: the clown-actor-author and Stanislavsky
-The Marx Brothers: narrative and hokum
-Clown authorship: Philippe Goudard and Cirque du Soleil
-Authors, censorship and culture: art and act in the USSR and post-war France
-Clown dramaturgy and new circus
-Art-clowns and Bozos
-Clown autobiography in the cinema: Leonid Yengibarov and Charlie Chaplin
-Cinematic clown fiction and documentary
-The clown lecture: Jacques Tati and the performance of clown theory
-Monsieur Hulot and the village idiot
-Gag types and their authors: Tati and Chaplin
-Rowan Atkinson’s guide to visual comedy
Chapter 10: Clown Training
-The red nose and the clown-actor: the Fratellini, Jacques Copeau and Jacques Lecoq
-Philippe Gaulier: failure and the flop
-Fake spontaneity: Charlie Cairoli and stand-up comedians
-Clown exercises and accepting failure
-Bim and Bom: laughter as (counter-)revolutionary
-Clown and the actor’s paradox: Gaulier vs. Stanislavsky
-Clown training with Gaulier
-Pleasure, play and drama training
-Games, theatre and rules
-Types of play: Roger Caillois and James Carse
-Breaking the rules
-Clive Barker and David Mamet: control and liberation
-Vertiginous games: play beyond rules
-The actor and the clown: Michael Chekhov, Lenard Petit and Sanford Meisner
-Clown and method acting
-Clown training and emotion
-Clowning and the foundations of 20th century theatre: Bertolt Brecht and Karl Valentin
-Samuel Beckett, Buster Keaton and Robin Williams
Chapter 11: Clown Politics
-Realism vs. the grotesque: the Soviet clown congress and Oleg Popov
-Anarchy and the state: Vitaly Lazarenko and Joseph Stalin
-Military and patriotic display and the origins of circus: the Ducrow family
-Clowns in the post-Krushchev era
-Lecoq, Popov and clown realism
-Society’s moral conscience: traditional clowns of Vancouver Island
-Political and spiritual power: the Koshari and social order
-Religious ceremony: the purpose of clowns in New Mexico
-Clown activism: the Clandestine Insurgent Clown Rebel Army
Chapter 12: Clown TV
-Sitcom clowns ‘in their own universe’: Phoebe, Kramer and Mork
-Innocence and stupidity: Joey
-Non-clown comedy, parody and satire
-Buffoons: Louie de Palma
-Truth and hoax: Andy Kaufman and Ricky Gervais
-Amoral clowning: Larry David
Chapter 13: Clown Plots
-Plot structure and problem-solving: Avner the Eccentric
-Magic, surprise and Tommy Cooper
-The narrative of circus skills, virtuosity and anti-virtuosity: Yengibarov, Keaton and Harry Langdon
-Beyond chases: Mack Sennett, Langdon and Chaplin
-Performance styles: virtuosic pantomime and the boob
Chapter 14: Clown Truth
-Copeau and the purity of clowns
-Lecoq and the personal clown
-Revealing personal truths: the sick comics
-Gaulier and the theatre of pretence
-Beyond contemporary clowning: fusing old and new, outer and inner
Conclusion: Clown Today
-Marginal status: traffic light and street clowns in Latin America
-Social clowning and the response to fear and horror: Frank Anderson and Peta Lily
-Humanitarian clowns: Patch Adams, hospitals and expeditions
-The professionalisation of clowning in health
-The World Parliament of Clowns and stupidity as a form of intelligence
-Clown spirituality: Jan Henderson, Alan Clay and astrology
-Clowning and theology: Christianity and Buddhism
-Applied clown and the misfit: Hilary Ramsden
Here is the full bibliography, listing all the sources cited or collected in "Clown Readings"
Also viewable here
Abbott, Bud and Costello, Lou (1944) (Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer).
Adams, Patch (1993) (Vermont: Healing Arts Press).
(1998) House Calls (San Francisco: Robert D. Reed).
(2007) Interview on Roda Viva, 9th April 2007 (TV Brasil), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9h0Zf9coyAo, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Allen, Tony (2002) Attitude: Wanna Make Something Of It? (Glastonbury: Gothic Image).
Anderson, Franki (2009) Fools Gold, http://www.playfool-theater.de/pageID_3240695.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2011) Interview by telephone, 13th December 2011.
Angelo, Henry (1828) Reminiscences (London: Henry Colburn).
Anderberg, Kirsten (2005) ‘Women Street Performers and Sexual Safety’, http://www.buskersadvocates.org/womenstreetperformers.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Armin, Robert (1972) Collected Works ed. Feather, J P (London: Johnson Reprint Corporation).
Arratoon, Liz (2011) Review of Slava’s Snowshow in The Stage, 19th December 2011, http://www.thestage.co.uk/reviews/review.php/34715/slavas-snowshow, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Aspa, Jordi (2009) ‘La Integridad del Círculo’ in Zirkolika, Revista Trimestral de les Arts Circenses no. 21, Summer 2009, p.33.
Astruc, Gabriel (1929) Le pavillon des fantômes (Paris: Grasset).
Atkinson, Rowan (1992) Visual Comedy, a lecture by Rowan Atkinson M.Sc. (Oxon.) (Tiger Television).
Auerbach, N (1990) Private Theatricals: the lives of the Victorians (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press).
Ball, Lucille (1951) I Love Lucy Pilot Program, unaired episode (CBS).
(1952) I Love Lucy Season 1, Episode 52, 22nd December 1952 (CBS).
Balderas, Elizabeth (2009) Letter to El Chamuco, reproduced at
http://clownplanet.blogspot.com/2009/06/spot-del-pt-partido-del-trabajo-de.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Bandolier, Adolf (1890) The Delight Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company).
Barker, Clive (1977) Theatre Games (London: Methuen).
Basch, Sophie (2002) Romans de cirque (Paris: Robert Laffont).
Baskervill, Charles Read (1929) The Elizabethan Jig and Related Song Drama (Chicago: Chicago University Press).
Baudelaire, Charles (1855) ‘On the Essence of Laughter’ in The Mirror of Art (1955) tr. & ed. Mayne, Jonathan (London: Phaidon Press).
Baugé, Isabelle (1995) Pantomimes (Cahors : Cicéro Éditions).
Beeman, William O. (1981) ‘Why Do They Laugh? An Interactional Approach to Humor in Traditional Iranian Improvisatory Theatre: Performance and its Effects’ in The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 94, No. 374, Folk Drama (Oct. – Dec., 1981), 506-526.
Bellocq, Éric, Lavenère, Vincent de et al. (2004) Le chant des balles (Vic-la-Gardiole: L’Entretemps).
Bellos, David (1999) Jacques Tati (London: The Harvill Press).
Billington, Michael (2008) Review of Varekai in The Guardian, 10th January 2008.
Boese, Carl (1931) Grock (La vie d'un grand artiste) (Universum Film AG).
Bogdanovich, Peter (1972) Leo McCarthy Oral History (Los Angeles: American Film Institute).
Bolton, Reg (1987) New Circus (Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation).
Bouissac, Paul (1972) Clown Performances as Meta-semiotic Texts in Language Sciences 19, 1-7.
-(1997) The profanation of the sacred in circus clown performances, in Richard Schechner and W. Appel (eds) By Means of Performance 194-207 (Cambridge: CUP).
Brecht, Bertolt (1955) translated by Geoffrey Kelton (1998)The Baden-Baden Lesson on Consent, in Collected Plays: Three (London: Methuen).
-(1994) Mann ist Mann (trans. By Gerhard Nellhaus) in Collected Plays: Two (London: Methuen).
Brinn, David (2011) ‘It’s not just clowning around with Slava and his Snowshow’ in The Jerusalem Post, 13th August 2011, http://www.jpost.com/ArtsAndCulture/Entertainment/Article.aspx?id=233659, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Brown, Ismene (2011) Review of Slava's Snowshow in theartsdesk, 29th December 2011,
http://www.theartsdesk.com/dance/slavas-snowshow-royal-festival-hall, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Brown, Maria Ward (1901) The Life of Dan Rice (New Jersey: Long Branch).
Bryant, Arthur (1952) The Age of Elegance 1812-1822 (London: Collins).
Buten, Howard (2005) Buffo (Arles: Actes Sud).
Caillois, Roger (2001) Man, Play and Games (Chicago: University of Illinois Press).
Cairoli, Charlie (1966) The Milk Number at The London Hippodrome, http://www.youtube.com/user/escoladeclown, date accessed 29th December 2011.
-(1973) The Milk Number at Cirque Bouglione, Paris, http://www.youtube.com/user/escoladeclown, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Calvi, Nuala (2011) Interview with Slava Polunin in The Stage, 16th December 2011.
Cameron, Anne (1981) Daughters of Copper Woman (Vancouver: Press Gang Publishers).
Campardon, Émile (1880) Les Comédiens du Roi de la troupe italienne (Paris: Berger-Levrault et Cie).
Carlson, Marvin (2003) ‘The Golden Age of the Boulevard’ in Joel Schechter (ed.), Popular Theater (London: Routledge).
Carse, James P. (1986) Finite and Infinite Games (New York: Random House).
Cashin, Pat (2011) Clownalley (http://clownalley.blogspot.com).
Cazeneuve, Jean (1957) Les dieux dansent à Cibola (Paris: Gallimard).
Ceballos, Edgar (1999) El Libro de Oro de los Payasos (Mexico DF: Escenología).
Cenoz, Clara (2009) Banana! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxwciaUtS1o, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2011) Interview at Escola de Clown de Barcelona, 20th November 2011.
Chai, Barbara (2011) ‘The Red-Nosed Revolution’ in the Wall Street Journal, 1st November 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204394804577010180278814076.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Chamberlain, Franc and Yarrow, Ralph (eds.) (2002) Jacques Lecoq and the British Theatre (Oxford: Routledge).
Champsaur, Félicien (1901) Lulu, Roman clownesque in Basch, Sophie (2002) Romans de cirque (Paris: Robert Laffont).
Chaplin, Charlie (1916) The Pawnshop (Mutual Film Corporation).
(1921) The Kid (First National).
(1928) The Circus (United Artists).
(1931) City Lights (United Artists).
(1936) Modern Times (United Artists).
(1964) My Autobiography, (London: The Bodley Head).
Chekhov, Michael (1953) To the Actor (New York: Harper and Row).
CIRCA (2006-11) http://www.clownarmy.org, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Claretie, Jules(1881) (Paris: Havard).
(1888) Boum-Boum (New York: William R. Jenkins).
Clay, Alan (2005) (Newtown, Australia: Artmedia Publishing).
Clowns of America International (2006) 20 Years of Laughter (Nashville: Turner Publishing Company).
Cohen, Moshe (2005) ‘A Short Look at Clown and Zen’, http://www.clownzen.com/it/clownandzen2005.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2007a) ‘Conversations with Roshi Egyoku: The Three Tenets’, http://www.clownzen.com/zenofit/threetenets.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2007b) ‘Conversation with Roshi Bernie Glassman’, http://www.clownzen.com/zenofit/bernieglassman.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2007c) ‘Conversations with Egyoku: Joy and Zen’, http://www.clownzen.com/zenofit/joyzen.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2012) ‘The power of the (clown) Nose’, in Sacred Mischief, http://yoowho.wordpress.com/2012/01/11/the-power-of-the-clown-nose, date accessed 11th January 2012.
Copeau, Jacques (1990), Texts on Theatre, edited and translated by Rudlin, John and Paul, Norman H. (London: Routledge).
Cortés, Edouard (2007) El Pallasso i el Fuhrer (The Clown and the Fuhrer) (Televisió de Catalunya).
Cosdon, Mark (2010) The Hanlon Brothers: from daredevil acrobatics to spectacle pantomime, 1833-1931 (Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press).
Coward, Simon and Perry, Christopher Woodall (2009) Bob's Full House (Dudley: Kaleidoscope).
Crane, David and Kauffman, Marta (1994-2004) Friends (NBC).
Dauven, L R and Garnier, Jacques (1971) ‘Fellini’s Clowns’ in Le Cirque dans l'Univers #81 (Club du Cirque), trans. by Goodman, Diane in (1978) Mask, Mime & Marionette, vol. I, no. 1, Spring 1978: 41-4 (New York).
David, Larry (2000-2011) Curb Your Enthusiasm (HBO).
David, Larry and Seinfeld, Gerry (1989-1998) Seinfeld (NBC).
Davis, Janet M (2005) ‘Bearded Ladies, Dainty Amazons, Hindoo Fakirs, and Lady Savages:
Circus Representations of Gender and Race in Victorian America’, Lecture at the University of Virginia 5th-8th October 2005, http://www.circusinamerica.org/docs/janetdavislecture_rev.pdf, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Davison, Jon (2008) The Phenomenology of Clown http://www.jondavison.net/theory, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2009a) The Dramaturgy of Clown http://www.jondavison.net/theory, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2009b) An Encyclopaedia of Clown http://www.jondavison.net/theory, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2010) Clown Training Today http://www.jondavison.net/theory, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Diercksen, Laurent (1999) Grock: un destin hors norme (Bévilard, Switzerland : Laurent Diercksen).
Denis, Dominique (1985) (Strasbourg: Éditions Techniques du Spectacle).
(1997) 1.000 gags de clowns (Strasbourg: Magix Unlimited).
Dickens, Charles (1837) The Post-humourous notes of the Pickwickian Club (London: E. Lloyd).
Dimitriev, Yuri (1967) The Soviet Circus 1917-1941 (Moscow: Progress Publishers).
Disher, Maurice Willson (1925) Clowns and Pantomimes (London/New York : Benjamin Blom).
(1937) Greatest Show on Earth (London: G. Bell and Sons)
Double, Oliver (1997) Stand-Up: On Being a Comedian (London: Methuen).
(2005) Getting The Joke (London: Methuen).
Dromgoole, Nicholas (2007) Performance Style and Gesture in Western Theatre (London: Oberon Books).
Dryden, John (1811) The poetical works of John Dryden, vol. 2, eds Warton, Joseph and Warton, John (London: Rivington).
Duranty, Louis-Edmond (1995) Théâtre des Marionnettes - Répertoire Guignol du XIXe siècle (Paris : Actes Sud).
Durwin, Joseph (2002) Coulrophobia and the Trickster, http://www.trinity.edu/org/tricksters/trixway/current/Vol%203/Vol3_1/Durwin.htm, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Eisenberg, Avner (c. 1980-2011) Exceptions to Gravity (live one-man show).
-(2005) Eccentric Principles, http://www.avnertheeccentric.com, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2011) Interview with Christopher Lueck, 3rd February 2011, www.clownsummit.com, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Evans, Mark (2006) Jacques Copeau (London: Routledge).
Feldberg, Robert (2010) 'Banana Shpeel is a Cirque du Soleil attempt at vaudeville’, review of Banana Shpeel at The Beacon Theater, New York (in The Record 27th May 2010).
Fellini, Federico (1970) I Clowns (Radiotelevisione italiana).
Findlater, Richard (1978) Joe Grimaldi: his life and theatre (Cambridge: CUP).
Fisher, John (2006) Tommy Cooper – Always Leave Them Laughing (London: Harper Collins).
Fleisher, Julian (1996) The Drag Queens of York (New York: Riverhead Books).
Franc-Nohain (1907) Les mémoires de Footit et Chocolat (Paris: Pierre Lafitte).
Franconi, Victor (1855) (Paris: Michel Lévy).
Fratellini, Albert (1955) Nous, Les Fratellini (Paris: Éditions Bernard Grasset).
Fratellini, Annie (1989) Destin de clown, (Lyon: Éditions La Manufacture).
(1997) Article about Annie Fratellini in L’Humanité, 2nd July 1997.
Fratellini, Valérie (2002) ‘Ça mange quoi, un clown? Soliloque d’une dinosaure’ in Jeu: revue de théâtre, no. 104, (3) 2002, p. 109-15, http://www.erudit.org/culture/jeu1060667/jeu1109687/26410ac.pdf, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Frediani, Aristodemo (Beby) (1930) Mémoires d’un clown (Paris: La Liberté).
Frichet, Henri (1889) (Tours: Alfred Mame et Fils).
Frost, Anthony and Yarrow, Ralph (1990) Improvisation in Drama (Palgrave Macmillan).
Fumagalli (2011) Le Miel et la reine des abeilles (The Honey and the Queen Bee), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTBhsv4rA6o, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Jané, Jordi (1996) Charlie Rivel (Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya).
Jané, Jordi and Minguet, Joan M (eds) (1998) Sebastià Gasch, El Gust pel Circ (Tarragona: El Medol).
Gardner, Lyn (2009) Review of at the Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, in , 5th August 2009, http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/2009/aug/05/le-cirque-invisible-review, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Gaulier, Philippe (2007a)/(Paris: Éditions Filmiko).
(2007b) The King of my School, http://www.ecolephilippegaulier.com, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Geldern, James and Stites, Richard (eds) Mass Culture in Soviet Russia (Indiana: Indiana University Press).
Gehring, Wes D. (1990) Laurel & Hardy: a bio-bibliography (Greenwood Publishing Group).
Gervais, Ricky (2006) (Channel 4).
Gervais, Ricky and Merchant, Stephen (2001-3) (BBC TV).
Gervais, Ricky, Merchant, Stephen and Davis, Warwick (2011) (BBC TV).
Girolamo, Mercuriale (1569) in Toole Scott, Robert (1958-1962) (Derby: Harpur Sons).
Goncourt, Edmond and Jules de (2005). Journal des Goncourt, volume 1: 1851–1857 (Paris: H. Champion).
Gordon, Mel (1983), Lazzi (New York: Performing Arts Journal).
Goudard, Philippe (2005) Anatomie d’un clown / Lire et Écrire le cirque (Vic-la-Gardiole: L’Entretemps éditions).
Grantham, Barry (2000) (London: Nick Hern Books).
(2006) Commedia Plays – Scenarios, Scripts, Lazzi (London: Nick Hern Books).
Grock (1931) (London: William Heinemann Ltd).
(1957) King of Clowns (London: Methuen).
Haifa, University of (2006) ‘Medical Clowning Studies’, http://newmedia-eng.haifa.ac.il/?p=887, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Halperson, Joseph (1926) Das Buch von Zirkus (Düsseldorf: Lintz A.-G.).
Hanna, William and Barbera, Joseph (1954) Hic-cup Pup (Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer).
Harris, Paul (1996) The Pantomime Book: The Only Known Collection of Pantomime Jokes and Sketches in Captivity (London: Peter Owen).
Helm, Alex (1971) Eight Mummers’ Plays (London: Ginn).
Henderson, Jan (2008) ‘Philosophy of Clown’, http://foolmoon.org/clownAndMask/clownPhilosophy, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Hicks, Bill (1989) ‘What you reading for?’ in Sane Man (Sacred Cow Productions).
Huizinga, Johan (1970) Homo Ludens; a study of the play element in culture (London: Paladin).
Hutter, Gardi (1981) Joan of ArPpo, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPdFJYK6fYY, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Jando, Dominique (2008) The circus: 1870-1950 (London: Taschen).
(2009) ‘Behind the Scenes at the Circus’, talk and panel discussion at the Baltimore Museum of Art, 31st March 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5FWPoqIp-bc&list=FLpcMgxiezNCvTR46FUxh46A&index=29&feature=plpp_video, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Jara, Jesús (2004) El Clown, un navegante de las emociones (Sevilla: Proexdra).
Jigalov, Andrei and Csaba, Albert (2009) The Sweets, http://video.mail.ru/mail/baks-show/Jigalov/345.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Johnson, Bruce ‘Charlie’ (1993) The Tramp Tradition (Kenmore: Charlie’s Creative Comedy).
(2000) ‘Early Female Clowns’ in The Clown In Times, Volume 6, Issue 3.
(2010) ‘History and Philosophy’ in Clowning Around, March/April 2010 (World Clown Association)
Johnston, Chris (2006) The Improvisation Game (London: Hern Books).
Jonson, Ben (1641) Discoveries Made Upon Men and Matter, ed. (1892) by Schelling, F E (Bosotn: Ginn).
Kapoor, Raj (1970) Meera Naam Joker (My Name is Joker) (R. K. Films).
Karandash (1987) Karandash (Moscow: Москва искусство).
Kaufman, Andy (1980) Appearnace on The Letterman Show, 24th June 1980 (NBC).
Keaton, Buster (1920) Neighbors (Metro Pictures).
(1927) College (United Artists).
Kelly, Emmet and Kelly, Beverly (1996) Clown (New York: Buccaneer Books).
Kemp, Barry (1979) ‘Bobby’s Big Break’ in Taxi Season 1, Episode 18 (Paramount Television).
Kendrick, Lynne (2011) ‘A paidic aesthetic: an analysis of games in Philippe Gaulier’s ludic pedagogy’ in Theatre, Dance and Performance Training Vol. 2 (1), 72-85 (London: Routledge).
Kerr, Walter (1975) The Silent Clowns (New York: Alfred A Knopf).
Koller, Donna and Gryski, Camilla (2008) ‘The Life Threatened Child and the Life Enhancing Clown: Towards a Model of Therapeutic Clowning’ in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5 (2008), Issue 1, pp. 17-25, http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2008/949505/cta/, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Kramer, Mimi (1998) ‘Hot Ticket to Nowhere’ in The New Yorker 21/11/1998.
Lane, Lupino (1945) How to become a Comedian (London: Frederick Muller).
Langdon, Harry (1924) All Night Long (Mack Sennett-Pathé).
-(1925) Boobs in the Wood (Mack Sennett-Pathé).
-(1926a) Tramp, Tramp, Tramp (First National Pictures).
(1926b) The Strong Man (First National Pictures).
(1927a) Long Pants (First National Pictures).
(1927b) Three’s a Crowd (Harry Langdon Corporation).
Laurel, Stan and Hardy, Ollie (1929) Unaccustomed As We Are (Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer).
Le Roux, Hughes (1890) Acrobats and Mountebanks trans. by Morton, A P (London: Chapman and Hall).
Levine, Josh (2010) Pretty, Pretty, Pretty Good – Larry David and the Making of Seinfeld and Curb Your Enthusiasm (Toronto: ECW Press).
Lily, Peta (2011) ‘The Dark Clown - In pursuit of a different kind of laughter’ (unpublished article).
Little, Kenneth (1981) ‘Clown Performance in the European One Ring Circus’ in Culture 1(2): 67-72.
(1991) ‘The Rhetoric of Romance and the Simulation of Tradition in Circus Clown Performance’ in Semiotica vol. 85(3/4): 227-55.
(1993), ‘Masochism, Spectacle, and the “Broken Mirror” Clown Entree: a Note on the Anthropology of Performance in Postmodern Culture’ in Cultural Anthropology, vol.8, no. 1: 117-29.
-(2003) ‘Pitu’s Doubt: Entrée Clown Self-Fashioning in the Circus Tradition’ in Schechter, Joel (ed.) (2003) Popular Theater (London: Routledge), originally published in The Drama Review 112 (1986): 182-6.
Louvish, Simon (2001) Stan and Ollie: The Roots of Comedy (London: Faber and Faber).
(2003) Keystone – The Life and Clowns of Mack Sennett (London: Faber and Faber).
Makarius, Laura Levi (1974) Le sacré et la violation des interdits (Paris: Éditions Payot).
Mamet, David (1998) True or False: Heresy and Common Sense for the Actor(London: Faber and Faber).
Margueritte, Paul (1886) Pierrot, assassin of his wife in Gerould, Daniel (1979) ‘Paul Margueritte and Pierrot assassin of his wife’ in The Drama Review, XXIII (March): 103-19.
Mariel, Pierre (1923) Histoire de trios clowns (Paris: Société Anonyme d’Éditions).
Martin, Steve (2008) Born Standing Up: a comic’s life (London: Pocket Books).
Marx Brothers, The Four (1933) Duck Soup (Paramount Productions Inc) in (1972) Monkey Business and Duck Soup (New York: Simon and Schuster).
Marx, Harpo (1959) appearance with Milton Berle on The Kraft Music Hall (NBC: 14/01/1959).
(1962) Harpo Speaks! (New York: Limelight Editions).
Mass, Vladimir (1930) Makhno’s Men in von Geldern, James and Stites, Richard (eds) Mass Culture in Soviet Russia (Indiana: Indiana University Press), 139-141.
McKerrow, R B (1910) The Works of Thomas Nashe, 3 vols (London: Sidgwick & Jackson).
McKinven, John A. (1998) The Hanlon Brothers (Illinois: David Meyer Magic Books).
McManus, Donald (2003) (Newark: Delaware).
Meisner, Sanford (1987) (New York: Vintage Books).
Melville, Jean-Pierre (1946) 24 Heures de la vie d’un clown (24 Hours in the Life of a Clown) (Melville Productions).
Mendoza, Rubén (2010) La Sociedad del Semáforo (Traffic Light Society) (DíaFragma, Fábrica de Películas).
Metcalf, C. W. and Felible, Roma (1992) Lighten Up – Survival Skills for People Under Pressure (Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley).
Milazzo, Franco (2010) Review of Le Cirque Invisible at the Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, in Londonist, 10th August 2010, http://londonist.com/2010/08/circus_review_cirque_invisible_quee.php, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Monkhouse, Bob (1993) Crying with Laughter (London: Century).
(1998) Over the Limit (London: Century).
Moshaeva, Ekaterina (Antoschka) (2006) World Parliament of Clowns, http://worldparliament.org, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2011) Interview by telephone, 20th August 2011.
Murray, D L (1930) Candles and Crinolines (London: Cape).
Murray, Simon (2002) ‘“Tout Bouge”: Jacques Lecoq, Modern Mime and The Zero Body. A Pedagogy for the Creative Actor’ in Chamberlain, Franc and Yarrow, Ralph (eds.) (2002) Jacques Lecoq and the British Theatre (Oxford: Routledge).
(2003), Jacques Lecoq (London: Routledge).
Musson, Clettus (2003) World’s Best Clown Gags (New York: D. Robbins and Co).
Nachmanovitch, Stephen (1990) Free Play: Improvisation in Life and Art (New York: Tarcher/ Penguin).
Northbrooke, John (1577) Treatise against Dicing, Dancing, Plays and Interludes in Shakespeare Society (1843) Early Treatises on the Stage (London: Shakespeare Society), p. xvi.
Nose to Nose (2011) http://www.nosetonose.info, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Opie, Iona and Peter (1969) Children’s Games in Street and Playground (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Page, Patrick (1997) 150 Comedy Props (London: Patrick Page).
(2005) Book of Visual Comedy (London: Patrick Page).
Pallapupas (2011) F.A.Q., http://www.pallapupas.org/es/pallapupas/faq.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Paret, Pierre (1959) ‘Entrée de Grock’ in Le Cirque dans l'Univers #34 (Club du Cirque), trans. by Towsen, John (1978) in Mask, Mime & Marionette, vol. I, no. 1, Spring 1978: 25-39 (New York).
Parson, Elsie Clews (1923) ‘The Hopi Wöwöchim Ceremony in 1920’ in American Anthropologist 25: 156-187.
Partido del Trabajo de México (2009) Party Political Broadcast, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZq9qBqT9Qk&NR=1, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Patkin, Max and Hochman, Stan (1994) The Clown Prince of Baseball (Texas: WSR).
Peacock, Louise (2009) Serious Play - Modern Clown Performance (Bristol: Intellect).
Pelling, Kate (2009) Boo! http://www.katepelling.com/Equivocate/BOO.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2011) Interview in London, 16th August 2011.
Perrodil, Edouard de (1889) Monsieur Clown (Paris: C. Dalou).
Petit, Lenard (2011) Clown Workshop for Actors, http://www.michaelchekhovactingstudio.com/clowning.htm, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Pierron, Agnès (2003), Dictionnaire de la langue du cirque (Paris: Editions Stock).
Pluvinel Antoine de (circa 1630) L‘instruction du Roy en l’art de monter à cheval (Amsterdam: Jean Schipper).
Poliakoff, Nicolai (1962) Coco the Clown: by himself (London: Dent and Sons Ltd).
Polunin, Slava (2001) Interview with Natalia Kazmina, translated by Julie Delvaux, http://www.loscuadernosdejulia.com/2008/11/slava-polunin-monologue-of-clown-1.html, date accessed 29th December 2011.
(2011) Interview with Alexander Kan, Arts Editor of the BBC's Russian Service, 22nd December 2011, BBC News online http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-16310653, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Popov, Oleg (1970) Russian Clown, (London: Macdonald).
Ramsden, Hilary (2011) Interview by telephone, 16th December 2011.
(1954) Jean-Gaspard Deburau (Paris: L’Arche).
(1956) Oleg Popov in France URSS (April 1956 No 127).
(1962) Entrées Clownesques (Paris: L’Arche).
Rheuban, Joyce (1983) Harry Langdon: The comedian as Metteur-en-Scène (London and Toronto: AUP).
Riehn, Wolfgang (2009) ‘Shaping the Future Intelligently or with Stupidity?’ World Parliament of Clowns panel discussion at the World Culture Forum, Dresden, http://www.wcf-dresden.com/index.php?ILNK=Tag_Clowns&iL=2&GalId=10&PHPSESSID=323d908588741fb957daf4b1b1b1b987, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Rivel, Charlie with J.C. Lauritzen, trans. Ursula Hoare (1973) Poor Clown (London: Michael Joseph).
Robbins, Norman (2002) Slapstick and Sausages, the Evoluiton of British Pantomime (Devon: Trapdoor Publishing).
Robinson-Holden, Joey (2011) Interview with the author, London, 15th August 2011.
Romanushko, Marga (2008) Leonid Yengibarov: clown eyes of a poet (клоун глазами поэта) (Moscow: Москва Гео).
Rumyantseva, N. M. (1989) Clown and Time (Клоун и Время) (Moscow: Москва искусство).
Salverson, Julie (2008) ‘Clown, Opera, the Atomic Bomb and the Classroom’ in Prentki, Tim and Preston, Sheila The Applied Theatre Reader (London: Routledge).
Sand, Maurice (1860) Masques et Bouffons (Paris: Michel Lévy).
Sangor, Michel (1892) ‘Les Hanlons-Lees’ in La Plume, no. 82, 15th September 1892.
Sedita, Scott (2006) The Eight Characters of Comedy (Los Angeles: Atides Publishing).
Serafimovich, Alexander (1935) The Iron Flood (New York: International Publishers).
Schechter, Joel (1985), Durov’s Pig (New York: Theater Communications Group).
-(1998), The Congress of Clowns and Other Russian Circus Acts (San Francisco: AK Press).
Scheck, Frank (2010) ‘Clown flop lacks a-peel’, review of Banana Shpeel at The Beacon Theater, New York in the New York Post 22nd May 2010.
Shadyac, Tom (1998) Patch Adams (Blue Wolf).
Shepherd, Simon and Wallis, Mick (2004) Drama/Theatre/Performance (London: Routledge).
Shepherd, Simon and Womack, Peter (1996) English Drama: a Cultural History (London: Blackwell).
Simon, Eli (2009) The Art of Clowning (New York: Palgrave Macmillan)
Slavsky, R. (1980) Vitaly Lazarenko (Moscow: Москва искусство).
Stephen, Alexander M. (1936) Hopi Journal, 2 vol. (New York: Columbia University Press).
Stott, Andrew McConnell (2009) (Edinburgh: Canongate Books).
Strehly, Georges (1900) L'Acrobatie et les Acrobates (Paris: Delagrave).
Sylvander, Beril (1984) ‘Looking For Your Clown ... And Finding Yourself’, first published in 1984 in Art et Therapie and reproduced at http://www.nosetonose.info/articles/bertilarticle.htm, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Tati, Jacques (1967) Cours du soir (Specta Films).
Tarlton, Richard (1884) ed. Halliwell, James Orchard (New York: AMS Press 1973).
Taylor, Millie (2007) (Bristol: Intellect Books).
Taylor, Paul (2011) ‘Slava’s Snowshow at The Royal Festival Hall, London’ in , 23rd December 2011.
Thayer, Stuart (1997) Traveling Showmen (Detroit: Astley & Ricketts).
Ticketmaster (2011) Comments on Slava’s Snowshow, http://reviews.ticketmaster.co.uk, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Toothaker, Christopher (2011) ‘Shhh! Mimes tackle traffic chaos in Venezuela’ for Associated Press, 8th October 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/9886059, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Toulmin, Vanessa (2007) Interview on Making History, 10th April 2007, BBC Radio 4, http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/making_history/making_history_20070410.shtml, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Towsen, John (1976) (New York: Hawthorne).
(2011) All Fall Down, the Craft and Art of Physical Comedy, http://physicalcomedy.blogspot.com, date accessed 21/11/2011
Valentin, Karl (1976) Der Reparierte Scheinwerfer (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag).
Vàzquez, Gerard (2006) Uuuuh! (Barcelona: Proa).
Wallett, William F (1870) The Public Life of W F Wallett, the Queen’s Jester (Kondon: Benrose and Sons).
Webber, Kimberley (1996) Circus!: The Jandaschewsky story (Sydney: Powerhouse Publishing).
Welsford, Enid (1935) The Fool: His Social and Literary History (London: Faber and Faber).
Wiles, David (1987) Shakespeare’s Clown (Cambridge: CUP).
(2003) A Short History of Western Performance Space Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Winnicott, D.W. (1971) Playing and Reality (London: Penguin).
World Clown Association (2011) ‘Clown ministry’, http://worldclown.com/?page_id=10075, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Wright, Barton (1994) Clowns of the Hopi (Arizona: Northland).
Wright, John (2006) Why Is That So Funny? (London: Nick Herne Books).
Yengibarov, Leonid (1963) Путь на арену (The Path to the Arena) (Armenfilm).
Zaporah, Ruth (1995) Action Theatre: The Improvisation of Presence (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books).
Zola, Émile (1881)